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first_imgIn the wake of Monday’s Boston Marathon bombings, experts across Harvard University analyzed the puzzle and potential of the attack’s aftermath.An urban planner saw the tragedy as a challenge to openness and freedom in public spaces. An analyst suggested that there may soon be increased video surveillance in cities. A terrorism expert who grew up in Israel saw parallels with that country’s responses. A social worker talked about explaining major violence to children. And a dean reminded us that the human spirit can, and must, triumph.Here are their thoughts:RULES REFLECT LAW ENFORCEMENT, NOT WARGabriella BlumRita E. Hauser Professor of Human Rights and Humanitarian LawHarvard Law School (HLS)The bombing’s horrors were familiar to Blum, who grew up in Israel, where terrorist explosions at popular cafes and on crowded buses were a regular occurrence. When she heard of the Boston attacks, it seemed “all too foreign, as belonging to a different place in some way, not here. I always think this is not Jerusalem, Boston is not Jerusalem, so it was eerie in that sense.”Blum, who served in the Israeli military, was a member of the Israeli National Security Council, and now co-directs the Harvard Law School-Brookings Project on Law and Security, said she was surprised that President Obama at first hesitated to label the attack as terrorism. “I think hedging the fact that it was probably terrorism, that was going too far.”Still, Blum acknowledged the administration’s initial reluctance was likely due in large part to “this current social association of terrorism with extreme, Muslim terrorism.”“I think officials were very careful not to go there before they had more information,” she said. “So they wanted to make sure that they keep an open mind, the public keeps an open mind about possible perpetrators, about possible motivations, without prejudging the event.” She said she agreed with the president’s later statement that any intentional, indiscriminate attack on civilians is terrorism.Blum said there is frequently tension between officials who want to classify terrorism as a criminal act and those who say it is a crime of war. In Boston, she said, officials have clearly decided to label the bombings a crime, “meaning that any search they perform is a lawful search … and there is a chain of evidence that is well recorded, that interviews are conducted lawfully, that everything … has to be done by the rules, and the rules are those of law enforcement. They are not rules of war.”As is the practice in Israel, she said Boston officials are wise to encourage people to embrace some normalcy. “You can’t possibly diminish from the gravity of what has happened,” she said. “The message does need to be that people should try to resume their normal lives as much as possible, as quickly as possible, if you haven’t been personally affected by these events.“My humble impression, looking from the sidelines, is I think they have handled it very well so far. The message is one of resilience,” she said. “Something terrible has happened, but Boston is a strong city, it has a long and rich, important history in the history of the United States. … There is going to be a cordoned-off area … and there’s going to be an increased police presence. But other than that, we expect you to resume your normal life as much as possible.”— Colleen WalshTIGHTER RESTRICTIONS FOR PUBLIC SPACESJerold KaydenFrank Backus Williams Professor of Urban Planning and DesignHarvard Graduate School of Design (GSD)Kayden said the marathon bombings may reduce access to some public spaces, at least in the short term, and deepen public attitudes about the need for security in shared civic spaces, a trend that started after the 9/11 attacks. He added that the bombings will renew a challenge to architects and urban planners: How do you design public space to be secure, but in a way that preserves its accessibility?An internationally recognized expert on public space, Kayden is an advocate for what he calls “public-ness,” the expectation of accessibility in shared urban territory, whether in parks, plazas, atria, and other locales of transitory city life. He wrote the 2000 book “Privately Owned Public Space: The New York City Experience.” An urban planner and land-use lawyer, he teaches a GSD course on public space and recently organized a two-day international conference on the puzzle, power, and potential of public space.He said the first possible reaction to the attack is to revisit the lessons of 9/11. “Owners and managers of public space instituted new rules that, in the quest for greater security, necessarily reduced the public-ness of a space,” said Kayden. “That may mean reducing or eliminating access to a space, ID and bag checks, surveillance cameras, and greater presence of security guards.”Tightening or eliminating access can happen in privately owned public spaces, he said, which by law are required to be open to the public. “Everybody recognizes the hierarchy of concern, and that security is of course at the top of that hierarchy,” he said. “But it comes at a cost. The tension between security and openness will never leave us.“The security experts will review what happened and come up with new strategies for mitigating the risk of this sort of event occurring again,” said Kayden. But part of that discussion, he said, should include a voice for preserving the “public-ness” of such space. “That’s the real challenge.”—   Corydon IrelandMAKING THE HUMAN SPIRIT SHINE THROUGH David N. HemptonDean of the Faculty of Divinity, Alonzo L. McDonald Family Professor of Evangelical Theological Studies, and John Lord O’Brian Professor of DivinityHarvard Divinity School (HDS)When Hempton delivered the School’s convocation as a new dean last fall, he drew on memories of his years in Northern Ireland, where a brutal religious and ethnic conflict raged for decades before waning, to offer his audience a vision of hope.Speaking to his staff after Monday’s attack, he recalled how it felt for a city like Belfast to be brutalized by violence, and to weather “an attack on the human spirit.” At an event like the Boston Marathon, where people support and celebrate one another’s resilience and endurance, the bombings were “a dagger to the heart of all that human solidarity.”But Hempton urged caution and restraint as the facts are gathered, recalling how Northern Ireland had instituted a policy of internment without trials for terrorist suspects.“You can manipulate your own laws in ways that can make a situation worse rather than better,” said Hempton, “so I think we need to respond appropriately, in a free society, without in any way diminishing … the moral outrage at an act like this. But as a free society, we need to think of our response in a measured and mature way, because idle talk or revengeful thoughts aren’t going to undo this act.”He had words of hope for the Harvard community. Strong leaders, he said, “people with a degree of moral courage and clarity, can rise above the din and speak about these events with a degree of moral clarity that doesn’t suck you into a spiral of either revenge or of singling out people.”Amid the horror, Hempton said he was reminded of the goodness of the human spirit, “that wonderful sense of human togetherness as the first responders and the medical people with courage and compassion just took charge and helped people. These are awful incidents, but in the midst of this awfulness, that human compassion and spirit shines through in tremendously impressive ways.”Hempton said he also felt that “resilience of good people” very strongly in Northern Ireland, and its people’s “determination to build a humane and just society in the light of provocation and deep cruelty.”“The things we believe in today, we believed in two days ago. And we are going to go on believing, and no amount of nasty viciousness is going to deflect us from that. The people who did this need to be brought to justice, but our society will move on.”— Colleen WalshIMPACT ON CIVIL LIBERTIES DEPENDS ON ATTACK’S SCOPENoah FeldmanBemis Professor of International LawHarvard Law School (HLS)Feldman, an authority on civil liberties, says, “An individual event, if it turns out to be relatively isolated, and perpetrated by an individual or a small group of people not connected to a national network, is not likely to have a major impact on civil liberties. If there were repeated events that took place on a broader scale and they didn’t seem to be isolated, that would be a different kettle of fish.”Feldman said the Boston attack will continue “a trend toward scrutiny of public actions, such as video surveillance of public places. That’s already a major national and international trend.” A traveler in London “can barely go anywhere without being on closed-circuit television,” he said, and “New York is moving in that direction.” Boston had not embraced the idea of widespread public surveillance, “but perhaps we’ll see an uptick in that,” said Feldman, “especially if surveillance turns out to be useful in finding the perpetrators, which seems to me very possible.”With increased video surveillance would come increased coordination, linking cameras on the street, say, to those “inside of stores or other places where it’s conceivable these bombs may have been placed. In some way, that does affect our sense of anonymity, but it doesn’t affect civil liberties in the classical sense, since it’s about your public actions. It’s already the case that people can see what you’re doing when you walk down the street. This just means there might be a video record of it.”The Boston attack also supplied a nudge that feels familiar. “At the level of public consciousness, this is a reminder that there is no — and there probably can never be any — guarantee of total security,” said Feldman. “It’s a reminder there will always have to be some degree of vigilance.”— Corydon IrelandHOW TO HELP CHILDREN COPE WITH VIOLENCEBetsy McAlister GrovesAdjunct Lecturer on EducationHarvard Graduate School of Education (HGSE)When it comes to discussing the marathon bombings with children, it is critical to be open and honest, while keeping in mind a child’s age, said Groves.The licensed clinical social worker is also the founding director of the Boston Medical Center’s Child Witness to Violence Project, which helps children cope with domestic or community violence and other traumatic events. Parents should tell their children the truth, she said, yet proceed cautiously.“This notion that kids are too young is one we have to be really careful about,” said Groves, who worked with preschoolers in the aftermath of the 9/11 terrorist attacks. “Parents assumed then that 3- or 4-year-olds didn’t know anything about it,” she said. But at day care centers, kids were playing “buildings falling down.”While parents shouldn’t necessarily go into detail with 3-year-olds, they should take cues from their children, said Groves, and be willing to have sensitive conversations with them as the need arises. By simply sticking to the facts, parents can help ease children’s fears or correct misunderstandings, she said, as well as reassure them about their safety.“Children take cues from their parents about how to make sense of all kinds of events in the world,” said Groves. She urged parents to assess their own feelings, and then determine what they will say and how they will say it before having a conversation with their kids. “I think that parents need to just give themselves permission to collect their own thoughts.”Honesty is critical, she added, noting that opening a dialogue with children signals that it’s OK to discuss a difficult subject. “If parents take the initiative to bring it up, it makes the topic less scary to start with.’”Limiting teenagers’ exposure to graphic content on the Internet and television is difficult, but parents should try to shield younger children from a barrage of disturbing media images, said Groves.Most Massachusetts schools are in the midst of a weeklong spring vacation, so many teachers won’t have the chance to discuss the attack with their students until Monday. In the interim, Groves urged school administrators to develop action plans before returning from the break, “some plan for dealing with children’s questions and/or talking with them proactively.” In the absence of a plan, the message from teachers needs to be that talking about the attack in the classroom is fine, since, “It’s the indication that we are open.”One way to help students to cope with the news, said Groves, is to find a way for the students to give back, perhaps by contributing to a fund for a victim, or sending a letter of thanks to a local police department. “For all of us, this feeling of helplessness is the worst thing,” she said. Giving kids a way to contribute “counteracts helplessness.” — Colleen Walshlast_img read more

first_imgAmazon signs biggest corporate solar PPA in Australia with developer Canadian Solar FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailPrint分享Renew Economy:Global online shopping giant Amazon has revealed that its previously announced contract to buy 105MW of output from an un-named Australia solar farm is with the 150MW Suntop facility in New South Wales.Amazon has pledged to power its operations with 100 per cent renewable energy by 2030, reach net zero emissions by 2040, and CEO Jeff Bezos has also pledge $US10 billion to a establish a new fund to support climate change efforts.The deal with Suntop solar farm – located about 10km from Wellington in the state’s central west region, is believed to be one of, if not the biggest, single power purchase agreements between a corporate customer and a solar farm in Australia. (Some bigger contracts, such as that signed by Neoen and CleanCo for the Western Downs solar project in Queensland are between developers and energy retailers).Suntop, being developed by Canadian Solar, will in fact have a capacity of 150MW (ac), and will sell just over two thirds of its output to Amazon. It was first announced in late 2018 when Photon Energy held a 25 per cent stake in the project, since sold to Canadian Solar. Photon is still looking to develop a bigger project next door, known as Suntop 2.It is the second deal struck between Canadian Solar and Amazon following the announcement that Amazon would buy 60MW of output from in Canadian Solar’s 110 MW (ac) Gunnedah solar farm, also in New South Wales.The five new renewable energy projects announced by Amazon in May added a total of 615MW of contracted capacity, or around 1.2 million megawatt hours of additional renewable output, to help power its retail operations and data centres. In total, it has announced 31 utility-scale wind and solar renewable energy projects and 60 solar rooftop installations on its centres across the globe, with a total of more than 2,900MW of contracted and installed capacity and more than 7.6 million MWh of renewable energy a year.[Giles Parkinson]More: Amazon signs biggest corporate solar PPA in Australia with Suntop projectlast_img read more

first_imgStoke forward Jonathan Walters enjoyed a mixed afternoon at Carrow Road as his penalty earned a point for the visitors before he was sent off just minutes later. Bradley Johnson had headed Norwich in front early in the second half before captain Sebastien Bassong was adjudged to have fouled substitute John Guidetti inside the penalty box. Former Ipswich man Walters converted from the spot but his adulation lasted less than five minutes as he was dismissed for a dangerous challenge on Canaries midfielder Alex Tettey – although Norwich could not find a winner and had to settle for a 1-1 draw. Hughton’s side were slow out of the traps as the hangover from the 4-1 mauling they took at Villa Park last weekend took time to clear and it was in those early stages that Stoke failed to capitalise on their hosts’ anxiety. Peter Crouch, Marko Arnautovic and Walters all had early opportunities to put Mark Hughes’ men in front and build on their win over Arsenal but, once Norwich had settled, the game became much more open. The first real chance of the game fell to Crouch on eight minutes as Glenn Whelan’s through ball split Norwich’s centre-backs but the striker could only shoot tamely at John Ruddy. Arnautovic was the next man to spurn a decent opportunity to open the scoring as he lashed high over Ruddy’s crossbar after being found inside the box by Erik Peters. With unease spreading through the Norwich supporters at such an early stage, Walters worked Ruddy once more inside the opening 15 minutes after Crouch and Arnautovic combined to create the chance. Nathan Redmond, who starred for England’s Under-21 side in midweek, did well to skip past a couple of Stoke challenges on the edge of the box but his ball to Snodgrass was a little in front of the Scotland international and his cross squirmed harmlessly out for a goal-kick. Wes Hoolahan was given a rousing reaction by the home fans as he kept his place in the side and the diminutive playmaker found Snodgrass with an intricate pass, with the winger this time able to bring a good stop from Asmir Begovic. Ricky van Wolfswinkel, without a goal since the opening day draw with Everton, glanced a near-post header wide from a Snodgrass corner as the game moved past the 30-minute mark with no side able to stamp a telling level of authority on proceedings. With five minutes to go before the break, the returning Peter Odemwingie was clipped on the edge of the box by Bassong but Arnautovic could only drill a low free-kick well wide of goal. Almost any attack of note for the hosts stemmed from Hoolahan and the Irishman tested Begovic from distance after picking up possession and driving into Stoke territory. The first chance of the second half was a replica of Hoolahan’s long-range effort only this time Begovic could not gather cleanly and was forced to dive back and push the ball behind for a corner. There was nothing Begovic could do shortly afterwards as Snodgrass whipped a free-kick into the six-yard box and Johnson was on hand to power a header past the Stoke goalkeeper and put the hosts ahead. Redmond came close to adding a second on the hour but his arrowed shot was pushed away by a flying Begovic. Stoke, who have only one away league win all season, levelled with just under 20 minutes remaining as referee Andre Marriner awarded a penalty after Bassong bundled down substitute Guidetti. Walters stepped up to convert his second spot-kick in as many games, much to the chagrin of the home fans. But Walters could not enjoy his equaliser for too long as the jeers from the home fans turned to cheers as the Republic of Ireland international was shown a straight red card for catching Tettey high on the leg. The dismissal prompted Hughton to go on the attack as he introduced both Gary Hooper and Johan Elmander from the bench, with Tettey and the ineffectual Van Wolfswinkel replaced. With 10 minutes remaining Norwich started to exert the pressure their one-man advantage had given them, with Stoke falling deeper and deeper towards their own goal. But the home side could not muster up a chance to win the game late on as Hughes’ side hung on for a draw – leaving the Canaries just four points above the bottom three. Press Associationlast_img read more

first_imgLiverpool’s battle to hang on to Raheem Sterling appears to have taken another twist with Manchester United reportedly entering the fray. Reports have claimed the Reds’ arch-rivals made a cheeky enquiry for the 20-year-old, whose future is up in the air after talks over a new contract were halted in January. Any such approach would be flatly rejected by the Merseysiders, who do not want to sell the youngster never mind to their fierce Premier League rivals. Press Association Sterling’s agent Aidy Ward is due to meet Liverpool chief executive Ian Ayre on Friday to discuss the future of the player, who still has two years left to run on his existing £35,000-a-week deal. Ward has had to deny initial reports he will tell Ayre the England international will not sign a new deal, saying: “The story has been blown somewhat out of proportion…..(we) have a meeting scheduled with Liverpool later this week and we will take proceedings from there.” Sterling was booed by some fans when he picked up his young player of the year award on Tuesday night, but former Liverpool captain Graeme Souness believes they are entitled to do so. “It looks like he wants to go and play somewhere else, which is really sad for Liverpool supporters,” he told Sky Sports. “If he’s privately making it known he wants to leave Liverpool then that word soon gets out and supporters are entitled to turn on him. “They support him through thick and thin. It looks like he’s turning his back on them which if he is, is very sad for the football club. “Just maybe someone should whisper in his ear and tell him he is not going anywhere. “He is a young man with lots of potential. He is far from being the finished article; he should stay at Liverpool, learn his trade and just get on with it. “But he has been advised by people who have maybe got the wrong priority. “Right now it is all about him learning to play the game, understanding the game and improving and he is at the best club he could possibly be at.” Former Liverpool midfielder Jan Molby believes the time might be right to sell. “If Raheem feels Liverpool is no longer the best place to be then I guess you have to bite the bullet and move him on,” said the Dane. “It is not like the sale of Luis Suarez. You knew the impact that sale would have on the team – I am not convinced if you sell Sterling it will have the same negative impact. “In my mind it might be the right time to sell because the club is in transition and maybe we could just do with that money. “I think we need to move away from buying potential and buy off the top-shelf, ready-made players, who can go in and improve the team.” Liverpool’s Champions League-winning midfielder Dietmar Hamann also agreed that if Sterling did not want to stay he should be sold. “I think Liverpool needs players who are committed now and if he feels his future is elsewhere then good luck to him,” said the former Germany international. “If he gets offered more money, Champions League football or a better opportunity to win trophies then that is his right to do that. “All you can do is put a price on him and if someone pays it you sell it and you get other players in.” last_img read more